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Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań Introduction For some time, the turn of the third millennium BC in Northern Mesopotamia has been considered a period of settlement collapse that witnessed the abandonment of the whole area Weiss et al. Recent research in the Khabur Triangle, a region located in the central part of the Jazirah, has demonstrated that during the so-called Post-Akkadian or Early Jazirah V period the central part of the area at least had been settled and probably politically divided between Urkesˇ and Nagar, both serving as seats of local dynasties of Hurrian origin.
A dark period starts with the abandonment of the Post-Akkadian levels at most of the sites in the area. As for the subsequent period, lasting approximately to years little or nothing is known about the archaeology of the area. Only with the dátum halloween 2022 suisse anti aging of the Middle Bronze Age II missha legjobb öregedésgátló krém, in which the well-known Khabur Ware pottery appears in its technically and stylistically most developed form, do settlements in the Khabur Triangle seem to be reestablished.
Yet, this process can hardly be dated with precision. In consequence, while excavations and surveys identified a considerable number of sites located in the central and the eastern part of North Mesopotamia yielding what I call Classic i.
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This view stands in opposition to information provided by the so-called Old Assyrian texts. It is hard to believe, that they had chosen to travel through a country that was entirely abandoned. While a reconstruction of the network of their caravan routes is still a matter of dispute, there is no doubt that a number of settlements existed on the way, serving as stopping stations after a day of travel Nashef ; Joannès ; Forlanini The aim of this paper is to identify pottery predating Classic Khabur Ware, pottery that could be subsequently used for the identification of settlements contemporary to the first period of the Old Assyrian trade to Anatolia prior to BC in the Khabur Triangle area.
The Old Assyrian Trade Sources The primary source for the knowledge of the Old Assyrian period are substantial archives found during initially illicit and later scientific excavations at Kültepe ancient Kanesˇa large site located in the Kızıl Irmak valley in central Turkey.
The number of tablets found at the site was estimated at ca. Of these tablets ca. Surprisingly, only an extremely small number of Old Assyrian texts are known from Assur, the city that formed the base for the trade.
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Twenty-three tablets that were identified are mainly stray texts found in Middle Assyrian archives Donbaz ; Pedersén2. This situation results from the fact that the early second millennium city was not excavated to any significant extent by either early or late 20th century explorers.
Old Assyrian texts from the Jazirah are even less numerous: there are three tablets from Tell Rimah, one tablet from Tell Leilan, one tablet from Tell Hammam et-Turkman, and, if Jesper Eidem is right, an envelope fragment from Tell Arbid may also be added to this list Eidem b, A small fragment of a tablet from Lidar Höyük published recently Müller belongs to the Syrian scribal tradition and seems to be later than the Old Assyrian trade.
It has to be noted that Northern Mesopotamia also yielded a considerable number of Old Babylonian texts produced by the administrations of various local kingdoms.
Many of them use date formulas involving the name of the holder of the lı¯mum office in Assur, which can now be converted into calendar years cf. Chronology The Old Assyrian texts from the lower city ka¯rum area of Kültepe have been found in two levels of occupation separated by a conflagration layer.
Most of the tablets came from level II. The level Ib houses were much poorer in epigraphic material but cuneiform tablets of the same date were also found in contemporary layers of the main mound where earlier kozmetikai arcmaszk were not attested. All the tablets discovered at other Anatolian sites date to level Ib as well.
Bazar: Chagar Bazar, M. It is more difficult to qualify the tablets found in Mesopotamia in terms of ka¯rum Kanesˇ settlement periods.
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There is no doubt that the texts form Hammam et-Turkman, Leilan, and Rimah, as well as most tablets from Mari and Tuttul, are contemporary with the Kanesˇ Ib level.
This is also the case for the Sippar tablets, most of which concern the merchant Warad-Sîn, active between the forty-second year of Hammurapi — BC and the eighth year of Samsu-iluna — BC. The tablets from Esˇ- nunna, Nuzi, and Nippur show a number of features of the Old Assyrian dialect, but cannot be dated safely to any of its sub-periods Jesper Eidem, pers. The dating of ka¯rum Kanesˇ II and ka¯rum Kanesˇ Ib levels was until recently a subject of scholarly discussion, including the question of the length of the abandonment period separating both levels, usually estimated to be about 30 years Balkan Veenhof a, 29 and continue down to ca.
As KEL G, the list providing the latest lı¯mum names, was discovered in Kültepe, there is no doubt that Assyrian trade with Anatolia did not stop before this date. The length of the ka¯rum Kanesˇ Ib period is dátum halloween 2022 suisse anti aging calculated to be ca.
The oldest lı¯mum names that appear on the tablets belong to the time of Iku¯num — BC Veenhof a, 32, n. There is also limited evidence suggesting that Iku¯num was personally involved in the trade Veenhof Some scholars argue that the edict was in fact a regulation, which created favorable conditions for the Old Assyrian trade and traders Larsen63— Commercial Roads of the Old Assyrian Period There have been a kozmetikai arcmaszk number of attempts to reconstruct the distribution of Old Assyrian commercial roads Goetze ; Hallo ; Nashef ; Beitzel ; Oguchi This discussion has not been limited to the identification or ordering of cities names mentioned on the tablets themselves, but has also focused on reconstructing the main caravan trek, in particular on whether it followed the Tigris River or crossed the Northern Mesopotamian plain towards the Euphrates and if the latter, whether this route was to the south or north of the Sinjar Range.
The starting point of the trek was, of course, Assur, and the last Mesopotamian station was Hahhum, where a crossing of the Euphrates was located.
Klaus R. Veenhof has recently proposed locating this city in the area of Samsat or at the site of Samsat itself on the Turkish Euphrates Veenhof megtévesztés anti aging vélemények. Twenty-eight such lists were collected and compared by Khaled Nashef Nashef Some of them refer to stations located either between Hahhum and Kanesˇ, or within Anatolia, as well as on detours from the main road.